Electrospray ionization (ESI)

Electrospray ionization (ESI) is a technique used in mass spectrometry to produce ions using an electrospray in which a high voltage is applied to a liquid to create an aerosol. It is especially useful in producing ions from macromolecules because it overcomes the propensity of these molecules to fragment when ionized. ESI is different than other atmospheric pressure ionization processes (e.g. MALDI) since it may produce multiply charged ions, effectively extending the mass range of the analyser to accommodate the kDa-MDa orders of magnitude observed in proteins and their associated polypeptide fragments.

Applications:

  • Molecular weight determination of
  • Proteins
  • Peptides
  • Small molecular weight drugs
  • Organic compounds
  • Organometallic complexes

Flow Cytometer

The FACS Aria III flow Cytometer from Becton Dickinson (USA) is a high speed cell analyzer and Sorter for measuring and sorting fluorescently labeled cells. Any Suspended cell form 0.2- 100 micrometers in size is suitable for analysis. When a fluorescent dye is conjugated to a monoclonal antibody, it can be used to identify a particular cell type based on the individual antigenic surface markers of the cell. In a mixed population of cells, different fluorochromes can be used to distinguish separate subpopulations. The staining pattern of each subpopulation, combined with FSC and SSC data, can be used to identify which cells are present in a sample and to count their relative percentages. The cells can also be sorted if chosen. For more information about the principles of flow Cytometry, please find below a link to a tutorial from BD Biosciences:

  http://www.bdbiosciences.com/services/training/itf_launch

Application

  • Analysis of sperm cell viability
  • DNA Fragmentation test
  • Acrosome Integrity
  • Mitochondrial membrane potential
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell cycle
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Cytokine production analysis using antibody-coated beads
  • Estimate the total bacteria number
  • Live and dead of algal cells
  • Sorting of haemocytes of mussel
  • Sorting of Gastric cancer cell line(AGS) infected with lentiviral particles that contains plasmid targeting a gene of interest and express green fluorescent protein (GFP).
  • Sorting of microalagae population from sea water
  •  

Gas Chromatography GC-FID

Gas chromatography (GC), is a common type of chromatography used in analytical chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition. A flame ionization detector (FID) is a Scientific Instrument that measures the concentration of organic species in a gas stream. It is frequently used as a detector in Gas Chromatography.

 

Applications:

Headspace GC is used for the analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organics in solid, liquid and gas samples. Analyses of alcohols in blood and residual solvents in pharmaceutical products. Other common applications include industrial analyses of monomers in polymers and plastic, flavor compounds in beverages and food products, and fragrances in perfumes and cosmetics.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy GC-MS

Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) is one of the hyphenated analytical techniques. As the name implies, it is actually two techniques that are combined to form a single method of analyzing mixtures of chemicals.

Applications:

Enhanced molecular ions, extended range of compounds amenable for analysis, superior sensitivity for compounds and faster analysis are the main attractive features of the clinical toxicology. The toxin and venoms are identified by GC-MS. It is extensively used in clinical toxicology

Dozens of congenital metabolic diseases called as inborn error of metabolism are now detectable in new born by screening tests using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. GC-MS can determine compounds in urine even in minor concentration.

Genetic Analyzer

3130XL Genetic Analyzer is 16 capillary Systems, which composed of Hardware and Software.

The features of 3130XL Genetic Analyzer are:

A new automated polymer delivery system that minimize setup and cleanup.

A new detection cell heater and optimized 3130 pop-7 software modules that result in more consistent, higher quality data across a wider range of applications with faster turnaround time.

Expanded one polymer, one array functionality for both sequencing and fragment analysis applications.

Continuous, unattended 24 hours operation with fully automated polymer delivery, sample injection, separation, detection and data analysis.     

Applications:

  • DE novo sequencing.
  • Re.Sequencing
  • Mutation Detection.
  • Single nucleotide polymorphism or (SNP) Analysis.
  • Microsatellite Analysis.
  • AFLP Analysis.

High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography HPTLC

High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) is an enhanced form of thin layer chromatography (TLC). A number of enhancements can be made to the basic method of thin layer chromatography to automate the different steps, to increase the resolution achieved and to allow more accurate quantitative measurements.

Automation is useful to overcome the uncertainty in droplet size and position when the sample is applied to the TLC plate by hand. One recent approach to automation has been the use of piezoelectric devices and inkjet printers for applying the sample.

The spot capacity (analogous to peak capacity in HPLC) can be increased by developing the plate with two different solvents, using two-dimensional chromatography. The procedure begins with development of sample-loaded plate with first solvent. After removing it, the plate is rotated 90° and developed with a second solvent

Applications:

Detection of adulteration

Assay of marker compounds, etc.

Identification of Pesticides

Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry ICP-MS

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry which is capable of detecting metals and several non-metals at concentrations as low as one part in 1012 (part per trillion). This is achieved by ionizing the sample with inductively coupled plasma and then using a mass spectrometer to separate and quantify those ions.

 Compared to atomic absorption techniques, ICP-MS has greater speed, precision, and sensitivity. However, analysis by ICP-MS is also more susceptible to trace contaminants from glassware and reagents. In addition, the presence of some ions can interfere with the detection of other ions. Analysis of Heavy and poisonous metal and metal complexes in Drinking Water, Ambient.

Applications

Water, Sea Water, Soils, Sludge, Solid Waste ,Plant material/agriculture Speciation of Hg, As, Pb, and Sn .Analysis Heavy metals in Blood, Urine, Serum, Hair, Tissue , Food Analysis ,Toxic element and species monitoring  ,Routine heavy metal contamination in drugs & Hospital Waste.

Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS, or alternatively HPLC-MS) is an analytical chemistry technique that combines the physical separation capabilities of liquid chromatography (or HPLC) with the mass analysis capabilities of mass spectrometry (MS).

Applications:

LC-MS is a powerful technique that has very high sensitivity and selectivity and so is useful in many applications. Its application is oriented towards the separation, general detection and potential identification of chemicals of particular masses in the presence of other chemicals (i.e., in complex mixtures), e.g., natural products from natural-products extracts, and pure substances from mixtures of chemical intermediates.

MALDI-Biotyper

The MALDI Biotyper identifies microorganisms using MALDI-TOF (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight) Mass Spectrometry to measure a unique molecular fingerprint of an organism. Specifically, the MALDI Biotyper measures highly abundant proteins that are found in all microorganisms. The characteristic patterns of these highly abundant proteins are used to reliably and accurately identify a particular microorganism by matching the respective pattern with an extensive open database to determine the identity of the microorganism down to the species level.

Features:

  • The innovative smartbeam-II laser enables ultra-high acquisition speed in MS at full systems performance.
  • Highly accurate.
  • Applicable to a wide range of Microorganisms.
  • Much faster than traditional methods.
  • Cost and time effective.

Applications:

  • Bacteria analysis and the identification of microorganisms to the species level and beyond is a key task of microbiology. Traditionally this is achieved by carrying out labour-intensive and time-consuming biochemical assays.
  • Maldi Biotyper is very helpful in Identification of uncommon veterinary microorganisms, Detection of food relevant pathogens, micro-organism contamination in drugs, Identification of microbes in water/soil, Epidemiology and taxonomic studies.

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is a soft ionization technique allowing the analysis of Biomolecules ( DNAProteinsPeptides, Enzymes and Sugars) and Organic  molecules  (Synthetic organic/Inorganic compounds, PolymersDendrimers, Drug and other  macromolecules) which tend to be fragile and fragment when ionized by more conventional ionization methods.

It is similar in character to electrospray ionization (ESI) in that both techniques are relatively soft ways of obtaining large ions in the gas phase, though MALDI produces far fewer multiply charged ions

Features:      

  • The innovative smartbeam-II laser enables ultra-high acquisition speed both in MS and MS/MS at full systems performance.
  • Up to 40,000 mass resolution and 1 ppm mass accuracy enables precision proteomics.
  • High throughput analysis with 2 kHz laser and 384 well sample target.
  • Latest TOF/TOF technology with high efficiency and sensitivity.
  • fmol amount of sample enough get a good output.
  • Helps top-down protein sequencing without enzymatic digestion.
  • Mascot is a powerful search engine which uses mass spectrometry data to identify proteins from primary sequence databases.

Applications:

  • Biochemistry: In proteomics, MALDI is used for the rapid identification of proteins isolated by using gel electrophoresisSDS-PAGEsize exclusion chromatography, affinity chromatography, strong/weak ion exchange, isotope coded protein labelling (ICPL),and two-dimensional gel electrophoresisPeptide mass fingerprinting is the most popular analytical application of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometers.
  • Organic chemistry: Some synthetic macromolecules, such as  catenanes  and  rotaxanesdendrimers  and hyperbranched polymers, and other assemblies, have molecular weights extending into the thousands or tens of thousands, where most ionization techniques have difficulty producing molecular ions. It can also be used for small to medium molecular weight organic/inorganic compounds.
  • Other applications include Pharmaceutical analysis, Characterization of potential drugs, Drug degradation product analysis, screening of drug candidates, Identifying drug targets, Environmental analysis, Pesticides on foods, Soil and groundwater contamination and Forensic/clinical analysis.
  • Other applications include Pharmaceutical analysis, Characterization of potential drugs, Drug degradation product analysis, screening of drug candidates, Identifying drug targets, Environmental analysis, Pesticides on foods, Soil and groundwater contamination and Forensic/clinical analysis.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Nuclear magnetic resonance, NMR, is a physical phenomenon of resonance transition between magnetic energy levels, happening when atomic nuclei are immersed in an external magnetic field and applied an electromagnetic radiation with specific frequency.  By detecting the absorption signals, one can acquire NMR spectrum. According to the positions, intensities and fine structure of resonance peaks, the structures of molecules can be studied quantitatively. The size of molecules of interest varies from small organic molecules, to biological molecules of middle size, and even to some macromolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins.

Features:

  • A three channel fully broadband console.
  • 16.4 Tesla (700.13 MHz) Ultrashield Plus™ magnet.
  • Z-axis gradient amplifier and digital lock.
  • Sample express- automatic sample changer -60 standard length NMR tubes.
  • 5mm TxI Inverse triple resonance cryoprobe H/C/N with ATMA.
  • ultrastable variable temperature control via a BSVT controller.
  • Solution state NMR.
  • Cryoplatform.

Application:

  • NMR Spectroscopy is a technique used by most modern chemical laboratories.
  •  It has applications in a wide range of disciplines, and development of new applied methods for NMR is an active area of research.
  • Methods in NMR spectroscopy have particular relevance to the following disciplines:
  • Chemical research and development: organic, inorganic and physical chemistry
  • Chemical manufacturing industry.
  • Biological and biochemical research.
  • Pharmaceutical research/industry.
  • Agrochemical research/industry.
  • Polymer industry.
  • Raw materials fingerprinting.
  • Mixture analysis.
  • Sample purity determination.
  • Structure elucidation.
  • Chemical composition determination/Compound identification and confirmation.
  • Quantitative analysis.
  • Quality assurance and control.

Personal Genome Machine

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases—adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine—in a strand of DNA. The advent of rapid DNA sequencing methods has greatly accelerated biological and medical research and discovery.

Knowledge of DNA sequences has become indispensable for basic biological research, and in numerous applied fields such as diagnostic, biotechnology, forensic biology, and biological systematics. The rapid speed of sequencing attained with modern DNA sequencing technology has been instrumental in the sequencing of complete DNA sequences, or genomes of numerous types and species of life, including the human genome and other complete DNA sequences of many animal, plant, and microbial species.

Applications:

  • DNA sequencing may be used to determine the sequence of individual genes, larger genetic regions (i.e. clusters of genes or operons), full chromosomes or entire genomes. Sequencing provides the order of individual nucleotides in DNA or RNA (commonly represented as A, C, G, T, and U) isolated from cells of animals, plants, bacteria, archaea, or virtually any other source of genetic information. This is useful for:
  • Molecular biology: studying the genome itself, how proteins are made, what proteins are made, identifying new genes and associations with diseases and phenotypes, and identifying potential drug targets
  • Evolutionary biology: studying how different organisms are related and how they evolved
  • Metagenomics: Identifying species present in a body of water, sewage, dirt, debris filtered from the air, or swab samples of organisms. Helpful in ecology, epidemiology, micro biome research, and other fields.
  • Less-precise information is produced by non-sequencing techniques like DNA fingerprinting. This information may be easier to obtain and is useful for:
  • Detect the presence of known genes for medical purposes (see genetic testing)
  • Forensic identification
  • Parental testing.

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with atoms in the sample, producing various signals that can be detected and that contain information about the sample's surface topography and composition. The electron beam is generally scanned in a raster scan pattern, and the beam's position is combined with the detected signal to produce an image. SEM can achieve resolution better than 1 Nano meter. Specimens can be observed in high vacuum, in low vacuum, and (in environmental SEM) in wet conditions.

The most common mode of detection is by secondary electrons emitted by atoms excited by the electron beam. The number of secondary electrons is a function of the angle between the surface and the beam. On a flat surface, the plume of secondary electrons is mostly contained by the sample, but on a tilted surface, the plume is partially exposed and more electrons are emitted. By scanning the sample and detecting the secondary electrons, an image displaying the tilt of the surface is created.

The 7600F is a field-emission scanning electron microscope that magnifies up to one million times for visualization and imaging of nanoscale-sized objects.

The FESEM is equipped with an AZtec and INCA microanalysis system, the wide range of operating modes and detectors are optimized for surface imaging and analysis of materials at the nanometer scale.

Resolution: 0.6 nm

Accelerating Voltage: 0.1 to 30 kV

Magnification: 25× to 1,000,000X

 

Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF)

Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) is one of the most widely used instrumental and analytical techniques. It’s used to determine the chemical composition and elemental concentration for different kind of materials in the concentration range of 1 ppm to 100%.

Xrf spectrometry is used for the bulk chemical analysis of materials in variety of applications in industry, in environmental studies and in academic research. In geological applications, xrf is mostly used for determining the major and trace element composition of rock and sediment samples. 

An XRF spectrometer uses primary radiation from an X-ray tube to excite secondary (fluorescent) X-ray emission from a sample which is usually in the form of a solid disc (fused bead or pressed pellet). The spectrometer is calibrated by measuring standards or reference materials and the calibration determines the relationship between the concentration of elements and the intensity of the fluorescent lines of those elements. 

Benefits of analysis by XRF:

  • Minimal or no sample preparation
  • Non-destructive analysis
  • Na11 to U92 analysis, ppm to high % concentration range
  • No wet chemistry – no acids, no reagents
  • Analysis of solids, liquids, powders, films, granules etc.
  • Rapid analysis – results in minutes
  • Qualitative, semi-quantitative, to full quantitative analysis
  • For routine quality control analysis instrument can be ‘used by anyone’

 

X Ray Diffraction

The PANalytical X, Pert Pro X-ray diffraction system is the basic platform for a wide variety of applications in analytical X-ray diffraction, in both the scientific an industrial research environments.

The sample is supposed to be in a powdered form

Equipment:

X-ray source: The Ceramic diffraction X- ray tube

Tube Anode material: Cu (Ka 1.5405 Å)

Incident beam optics: Soller slit (0.04 rad), Ni-filter, interchangeable divergence fixed slits and masks.

Diffracted beam optics: Soller slit (0.04 rad), interchangeable anti scattering slit and Mono chromator.

Detector: X Celerator detector.

Sample stage: fixed stage and spinner with Automatic multi-sample changer (45 samples)

Software: Data Collector, Data Viewer and High Score pulse.

Database: PDF-2 release 2012 (ICDD) and ICSD databases.

Applications:

  • Identifying and quantifying the mineral compounds in rocks and soils.
  • Qualitative and quantitative phase analysis.
  • Identifying and characterizing the nature of clay minerals.
  • High-resolution studies.
  • Crystal structure analysis.
  • Thin film phase analysis.